Ionic Conductivity, Diffusion Coefficients, and Degree of Dissociation in Lithium Electrolytes, Ionic Liquids, and Hydrogel Polyelectrolytes

Leoncio Garrido, Inmaculada Aranaz, Alberto Gallardo, Carolina García, Nuria García, Esperanza Benito, Julio Guzmán
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2018, 8, 122, 8301−8308.

The conductive and diffusional behavior of electrolytes in media with different dielectric and viscoelastic properties is investigated. A revised model to separate the contribution of dissociated and nondissociated species to the diffusion coefficients determined with NMR is proposed. Impedance spectroscopy is used to measure the ionic conductivity of lithium salts in aqueous medium, ionic liquids in aprotic solvents, and hydrogel polyelectrolytes. The diffusion coefficients of the species of interest in those systems are determined with multinuclear pulsedgradient spin−echo (PGSE) NMR. The results are analyzed using the revised model. It is shown that the degree of ionization could be determined directly from measurements of ionic conductivity and
diffusion coefficients in very different types of electrolytes and in a wide range of concentrations. Furthermore, these findings support the original Arrhenius hypothesis about electrolytes and show that the assumption of a complete dissociation is not required to describe their conductive behavior. The reduced conductivity observed in hydrogels, at or near swelling equilibrium, compared to that in solutions could be attributed mainly to the hindered ionic mobility caused by the network structure.